When your dog licks you, do you think, “aw, sweet,” or “ew, yuck!”? Whether you love the slobbery affection or prefer a dry snuggle, most dog owners are familiar with the phenomenon of enthusiastic licking. So, why do our dogs lick so much? And why does it sometimes seem as if dogs never want to stop licking?
We asked vet Dr. Karla Frazier for the reasons why dogs lick us—and themselves. Dog licking can occur for a variety of reasons but generally falls into two overall categories: behavioural and medical. Sometimes reasons for a dog’s licking constitute perfectly normal behaviour, while others do not. Here’s some insight as to when you should seek additional consultation or medical care.
Behavioural causes of licking stem from the fact that dogs are pack animals and interact with each other by nature. Licking can be:
- communication, as in the case of a mother dog and her pups
- submission from one dog to another
- a sign of affection, as when one dog licks or “grooms” another’s face/ears
Some pets transfer these behaviours to their human pack members and treat us as they would their fellow dogs—hence, all the slobber.
Besides these three main reasons, don’t forget, our salty skin can simply taste good to dogs, especially after a sweaty workout.
It only takes one flea for a flea-allergic pet to be licking like there is no tomorrow.
Medically speaking, skin lesions are one of the most common reasons for excessive licking. Other causes that necessitate medical intervention:
- Wounds: Dogs lick their wounds by nature. However, this can cause secondary damage in the form of additional inflammation, which can lead to infection. Wounds are treated based on their severity, often times requiring collars that prevent further licking of the area.
- Fleas: Don’t underestimate these pests! Exposure to fleas causes itchiness that leads to licking and chewing. If your pet is licking over their tail base (where the tail joins the body), especially to the point of hair thinning or hair loss, they are likely to be allergic to fleas. Do yourself a favour and administer superior quality flea control to your pet every month of the year. It only takes one flea for a flea-allergic pet to be licking like there is no tomorrow.
- Environmental allergies: Allergic pets will lick due to itchiness. Paws, armpit areas, flanks, and groin are the major areas of licking in this case. Often these are seasonal in nature. Seek medical attention for undue licking, especially if the skin is red or irritated.
- Dermatitis: A dog’s skin can be inflamed for a host of other reasons as well: mites, hormonal disease, food allergies, auto-immune diseases, non-allergy irritation, “hot spots,” and others. A good rule of thumb is to have your pet examined if their skin appears red/irritated, or if they are showing hair thinning or hair loss.
- Other: Though skin disease comprises the lion’s share of causes for licking, here are some unrelated (and uncommon) causes: pica (licking or eating non-food items; often a sign of GI disease), seizure-type behaviour (incessant licking at the air or smacking of the lips), and pain (licking at an area of a specific joint).
Bottom line: If it is an unusual behaviour for your pet, have it checked out.
If it’s not medical, then what are some other reasons that dogs lick themselves? Dog are overall clean animals, and will often clean themselves after being outside, including paw licking. They also groom the genital area after voiding.
Some dogs will lick themselves out of boredom, which tends to be a benign behaviour. However, abnormal licking can stem from anxiety and other obsessive behaviours.
Remember that our pets are individuals who react to the world differently. If your pet is obsessively licking and/or seems anxious, it’s time to seek professional advice to address the underlying problem.
Dog licking has many root causes. As an owner, you will have the best sense of whether your pet’s licking is normal. If you have concerns, watch your dog’s signs and body language to figure out what they’re trying to tell you. And if the licking seems strange or worrisome, seek professional help from a vet or dog trainer.
If in the course of your dog training you have discouraged licking, your dog may take to licking the air when they feel the impulse. They could also have something stuck in their mouth, and be trying to get it out. Or they could simply be smelling something interesting. Licking helps dogs move scent molecules to the organ (called Jacobson’s or vomeronasal organ) that senses them most fully.
Take the whole picture into account when you’re trying to determine why your dog is licking the air. And try leading your dog to the water bowl if you think it’s just a hair.
Licking furniture or the floor can be typical dog behaviour, especially if they find tasty crumbs, smells, or food residue. However, if your dog licks these areas for long periods of time, and is hard to interrupt, their normal licking behaviour may have changed into an obsessive behaviour pattern.
If you’re concerned about your dog’s obsessive licking, consider visiting a dog trainer, who can give you tools to teach your dog to self-soothe in ways that don’t wreck the furniture. You can also work with a trainer to address underlying sources of anxiety and obsessive behaviour, such as separation anxiety, and under and over-stimulation.
Although we have a lot of dog-related facts up our sleeves here at Rover.com but we also have loads of fantastic dog walkers and sitters who offer dog boarding in your area so get ready to meet your dog’s perfect match!
Dr. Karla Frazier is a vet who is a graduate of the Virginia-Maryland Regional College of Veterinary Medicine. She opened Hillsdale Animal Hospital in 2000.